Uttarakhand High Court: Ravindra Maithani, J. has asked the State of Uttarakhand whether an Investigating Officer, by conducting DNA tests, has the right to determine the gender or sex of a transgender person who underwent a gender reassignment surgery.
The petitioner, in this case, had filed an FIR alleging she was raped, but the FIR was registered by the police under Section 377 (unnatural offences) of the Penal Code, 1860. She had identified herself as a female and also claimed that she had undergone gender reassignment surgery and had obtained a certificate declaring that she may be addressed as a “she”. She approached the High Court, contending that she had been harassed by the investigating officers by lodging the FIR as an unnatural offence instead of rape and addressing her as a male.
The Court took into consideration the matter being one of social importance and hence it needs to be observed strictly as it is not only touching the petitioner alone but many others who have faced such an issue. The Court reiterated what has been laid down in the landmark case National Legal Services Authority v. Union of India, (2014) 5 SCC 438, wherein the petitioner’s “right to self-identification of gender” was denied and the Supreme Court rejected the age-old principle laid down in Corbett v. Corbett, (1970) 2 All ER 33 that an individual’s sexual constitution is fixed at birth and cannot be changed. The Hon’ble Supreme Court went on to prefer the “psychological test” instead of “biological test”. It stated “When we examine the rights of transsexual persons, who have undergone SRS, the test to be applied is not the “biological test”, but the “psychological test”, because psychological factor and thinking of transsexual has to be given primacy than binary notion of gender of that person. Seldom people realize the discomfort, distress and psychological trauma, they undergo and many of them undergo “gender dysphoria” which may lead to mental disorder. Discrimination faced by this group in our society, is rather unimaginable and their rights have to be protected, irrespective of chromosomal sex, genitals, assigned birth sex, or implied gender role.”
The Court questioned the acts of Investigating officers and the public servants and stated they have not taken into consideration the Supreme Court judgment. It asked the Home Secretary of the State of Uttarakhand to file an affidavit answering various questions as to how the Investigating Officer had the right to determine the sex or gender of the petitioner how could the Investigating Officer apply the “biological test” instead of the “psychological test” in light of the Supreme Court judgment.[Shilpi Lawrence Elenjikal v. State of Uttarakhand, Writ Petition (Criminal) No. 28 of 2019, decided on 29-04-2019]